Q) This video clearly illustrates the importance of rejuvenating the palpebral skin. What other techniques are able to do this?
A) Rejuvenating the skin of the upper and lower eyelids is of great importance to rejuvenating the overall appearance of the face. I believe that mixed peeling procedures will be widely used once the importance of skin rejuvenation has been fully grasped. The only technique that is able to retract and thicken the skin is mixed peeling, which is a standardised and consistently efficacious procedure; no other technique can do this. The result of mixed peeling can be further improved through volume enhancement, which is achieved by means of injecting adipose and stromal cells (Adipofilling).

Q) What is the difference between mixed peeling of lip wrinkles and mixed peeling of the lower eyelid? ?
A) The de-epithelialisation is the same. To eliminate lip wrinkles, a saturated solution of resorcin is applied to the de-epithelialised skin. To treat the eyelid, the resorcin solution is not saturated; it is diluted to 50%. The application times are also different: from 1 to 2 minutes on the lips, and about 20 or 30 seconds on the eyelids. The operator has to judge by the frosting effect.

Q) Why is no type of medication used?
A) The resorcin solution exerts a coagulating effect. Within a few hours, a crust forms, which prevents infection. The patient has to dry the area repeatedly during the first few hours, in order to keep the crust thin.

Q) In this video, while the resorcin solution is being washed off, a little resorcin gets into the patient’s eye…
A) Yes. We always keep a vial of physiological solution handy so that the eye can be washed if this happens. But resorcin is very safe. When applied to intact skin, it has no effect; on the mucosa, it can cause discomfort, but not damage.

Q) What are the indications for this timedsurgical procedure?
A) Roughness of the lower eyelid, palpebral folds, crow’s feet and pigmentation of rings under the eyes.

Q) Does mixed peeling eliminate pigmentations?
A) The technique used to treat the lower eyelids also eliminates dermal pigmentations.

Q) Is de-epithelialisation also carried out on the upper eyelids?
A) We have never done it. In the upper eyelids, we prefer to use another mixed peeling technique (0.5), which perfects surgical blepharoplasty and, in many cases, replaces it. This technique will be published in 2016.

Q) Can slow pulsed timedsurgical cutting be used in other regions?
A) Electroshaving by means of slow pulsed timedsurgical cutting is the method of choice for the removal of neoformations of the edge of the eyelid. It enables the neoformation to be exercised precisely while maintaining the integrity of the residual tissues. We apply the concept of self-regeneration of the organism that underlies electroshaving to all benign neoformations of the face and body. Surgical excision and suturing would cause evident scarring. Electroshaving does not produce surgical artefacts and, if correctly performed, leaves no visible signs.

Q) Why is it so important to achieve good local anaesthesia?
A) The haemostatic action of the epinephrine contained in the anaesthetic solution allows the operator to distinguish the plane of cleavage between the neoformation and the healthy tissues.

Q) Does electroshaving presuppose the maintenance of an underlying dermal layer?
A) Generally speaking, yes. If the neoformation is deep, we sometimes see some small areas of adipose tissue. If the neoformation occupies the entire thickness of the skin, for example in the case of syringomas of the eyelid, the micro-excisions made by means of slow pulsed timedsurgical cutting may be sutured. Let us remember that slow pulsed timedsurgical cutting is able to cut out a 1 mm flap between two lines.

Q) Is medication important?
A) Yes, medication after electroshaving is important. The edge of the eyelid has a great regenerative capacity and requires the application of a collagenase cream until a crust forms. After electroshaving in other areas of the face and body, a collagenase cream must be applied every day for a week. Before the cream is reapplied, the previously applied cream must be removed by means of a moist cotton wool bud. After a week, an antiseptic powder can be applied. Immediately after applying the powder, the patient must use cotton wool to remove any powder that does not adhere to the site of substance loss.

Q) What advantages does rapid pulsed timedsurgical cutting have over scalpels and lasers?
A) Lasers burn the tissues and are difficult to control. A scalpel can certainly be used, but for palpebral surgery we prefer to use rapid pulsed cutting because it is hemostatic, does not deform the tissues, enables the skin and muscles to be incised with great precision, allows perfect visibility and halves the healing times required for scalpel incisions. Moreover, when pulsed timedsurgical cutting is used on the mucosa, for example on the vermilion border, it does not leave any visible scars.

Q) What are the characteristics of the electromaniples?
A) The electromaniples are used to carry out the numerous (more than 70) standardized techniques of Timedsurgery. The EM10 electromaniples have flexible, conical tips with a triangular cross-section; they come in different sizes for use in the various applications (EM10 White 0.08 mm, EM10 Green 0.10 mm, EM10 Grey 0.15 mm, EM10 Yellow 0.20 mm, EM10 Black 0.30 mm. The EM15 has a 1.5 mm cylindrical tip).

Q) In the lower eyelid, are the adipose pouches completely removed?
A) Yes, completely. The adipose pouches of the eyelids retain water and swell according to the amount of sodium in the diet or as a result of dietary intolerance. If the region has little subcutaneous tissue, we can also perform Adipofilling, which can correct the lachrymal sulcus and bags under the eyes or enhance the volume of the malar region.

Q) Some surgeons say that adipose pouches in the lower eyelid should not be removed completely. What do you think of that view?
A) Congenital weakness of the septum orbitae allows the retrobulbar adipose tissue to herniate through to the surface. Adipose pouches therefore occupy an anatomically anomalous position. This alone is sufficient reason to remove them. Moreover, in addition to eliminating swelling of the eyelids, the complete removal of adipose pouches creates a recess that distends the skin. This is very useful in trans-conjunctival blepharoplasty, in which the skin is almost never removed. If we wanted to be a little malicious, we could say that removing all the pouches in lower blepharoplasty requires a degree of patience that not all operators have.

Q) During vaporization of the tissues of a malar pouch, what can be felt with a fingertip when the electrode is superficial?
A) Heat. This heat also provides an indication of the depth of the electrode.

Q) Do you have any other advice concerning this procedure?
A) I advise extending vaporization to the margins of the malar pouch in order to exploit the retraction of the tissues.

Q) What can be done to prevent malar pouches from recurring?
A) The patient should undergo elastic lifting of the eyebrows and temporal regions. The lachrymal sulcus and the malar region can be corrected by means of Adipofilling. Naturally, an elastic MACS and Neck lift would have a further rejuvenating effect.

Q) Is there any fibrosis of the subcutaneous tissue after Timedsurgical Adipolysis?
A) There is no visible fibrosis; Adipolysis specifically eliminates the adipose cells, and the micro-tunnels, though numerous, are too narrow to give rise to permanent hardening of the tissues; they do, however, have an effect on the retraction of the skin.

Q) Upper blepharoplasty is the first esthetic surgery procedure used to counteract aging. Is that right?
A) Yes, but upper blepharoplasty is not only an esthetic procedure; it also has a functional effect. Removing the herniated fat enables the eyelids to be opened wider and more easily.

Q) When timedsurgical resurfacing is carried out in the coagulation mode, is there any risk of causing a greater than necessary destructive effect?
A) Timedsurgical resurfacing exerts a potent effect, but this effect is superficial. It does not heat the healthy underlying tissues, which would cause damage. Let us remember that resurfacing is also used for hemostasis during electroshaving, a procedure in which regeneration of the skin begins immediately after the removal of the neoformation, thanks to the absence of necrosis.

Q) Why are two sessions necessary?
A) As xanthelasma is due to a familial metabolic predisposition, we cannot guarantee that the lesion will disappear definitively. The operator must tell the patient that xanthelasma is due to a metabolic alteration and that its treatment will require two sessions.

Q) In timedsurgery, are there really over 70 techniques, each with its own program data?
A) Timedsurgery (Technique for the Implementation of Measured Electrosurgical Data) utilises the Timed TD 50 Micropulse apparatus, which is specifically designed to be programmable. This means that we can control all the parameters that condition the effect of a high-frequency current. The high-frequency current is not influenced by the colour of the skin, but by its electrical conductivity, which is very similar from one individual to another. Each of the more than 70 applications has its own precise program data and uses a specific electromaniple. Specially designed currents have been created in order to perform operations that were previously impossible, such as de-epithelialisation of the skin, rapid or slow timedsurgical cutting, resurfacing, etc.

Q) Is the result of timedsurgical mixed peeling permanent?
A) Yes, mixed peeling of the lip will not have to be repeated. If a wrinkle should remain visible, a 5 mm area of skin may be de-epithelialised and the resorcin solution reapplied. However, this is rarely necessary.

Q) When can the skin be exposed to the sun?
A) As soon as the reddening disappears, the lip can be exposed to the sun; this will actually stimulate the melanocytes present at the bottom of the hair follicles.

Q) Might there be problems of hyperpigmentation?
A) No, absolutely not.

Q) Might there be problems of hypopigmentation?
A) No, not if the procedure is carried out properly. The saturated solution must be applied for the set times to the skin of the lip where the wrinkles are present, exactly where the terminal hairs are most numerous.

Q) How does the resorcin solution act?
A) The saturated solution of resorcin in water is not efficacious on intact skin; it can only act on de-epithelialised skin. Elimination of the epidermis enables the resorcin to act uniformly on the whole area. During frosting, the saturated solution of resorcin has a toxic effect on the melanocytes. This reduction in the number of melanocytes makes resorcin an extremely interesting de-pigmenting agent.

Q) How is the patient medicated?
A) After washing the resorcin solution off, the operator applies a cortisol solution, for example a vial of Betamethasone. Over the next few hours, the patient repeatedly dries the area with a paper tissue until a thin crust forms; the crust will be left to drop off on its own. When the crust drops off, slight reddening will remain; this will disappear completely within a few months. During this period, the patient will apply a zinc oxide cream every morning and evening.

Q) How is the saturated solution of resorcin made?
A) A small amount of resorcin powder is dissolved in a few drops of water. When a few granules of resorcin remain on the bottom of the vessel, the solution is saturated.

Q) In this procedure, the achromic epidermidis is replaced by cultivated epidermis endowed with melanocytes. What is the advantage of this procedure?
A) Timedsurgical de-epithelialisation leaves the dermis intact. If the dermis is intact, the graft takes root 100%. After this procedure, the re-pigmented skin will have the appearance of the patient’s normal skin and no scarring or surgical artefacts will remain.

Q) Can this technique be used in all forms of vitiligo?
A) No, only in stable vitiligo and piebaldism.

Q) Can scars be re-pigmented, too?
A) Yes. We have successfully carried out this procedure on numerous large achromic scars.

Q) Do you use this technique to treat small achromic scars?
A) No, it is too costly. If the scars are small, we only apply Timed micro-evaporation at 50 Watts for 1/3 of a hundredth of a second. Once the achromic epidermidis at the edges and above the scar has been removed, the scar will be re-epithelialised from the adjacent epidermis of the healthy skin and normal pigmentation will be restored.

Q) What sort of achromic areas are treated with timedsurgical micro-evaporation?
A) We treat small iatrogenic achromic lesions and solar lesions in this way. Achromic surgical scars of the face and body also disappear from view after this treatment.

Q) For which other procedures can pulsed timedsurgical de-epithelialisation be used?
A) To eliminate deep lip wrinkles and crows’ feet; to de-pigment dermal-epidermal patches; to treat recurrent plane warts, and to treat epidermolysis bullosa. In this last procedure, the pathological epidermis is replaced by epidermis modified by genetic engineering.

Q) How is the antiseptic powder applied?
A) The powder is sprinkled on a wad of cotton-wool and applied like a face powder; the excess powder is then removed with the cotton-wool. The crust must remain thin.

Q) How do you generate the micro-arc?
A) The micro-arc is generated through the air. The tip of the electrode touches the tissue and is then withdrawn; this triggers a micro-arc, which ionises the air. The ionised air is conductive and maintains the micro-arcs when the electrode passes very close to the surface of the skin.

Q) How much time must elapse between one session and the next?
A) On the face, at least two months.

Q) Are keratoses on the body treated differently?
A) Keratosis on the body require much greater delicacy; timedsurgical resurfacing or timed emissions at 50 Watt for 1, 2 or 3 hundredths of a second are used.

Q) Which of these two options is preferable?
A) We are evaluating the second one, which has the advantage of being very well tolerated without anaesthesia and does not leave any residual areas of hypopigmentation.

Q) What about small facial keratoses?
A) At present, we use resurfacing in the Coag function at 27 or 38 Watts with the EM15 electromaniple; this is the same treatment that we use for small senile lentigines of the face. These latter lesions can also be treated by means of Electroporo-cosmesis, after which 45% citric acid or 25% TCA saturated with resorcin is dabbed on. Another option is to apply 50 Watts for 1 or 2 hundredths of a second. Alternatively, a more delicate approach can be adopted; this involves using the resurfacing function at 50 Watts and setting the time to 1 or 6 hundredths of a second. In the first case, an emission of 1/3 of one-hundredth of a second is obtained; in the second case, the emission time is 2/3 of one-hundredth of a second.

Q) Why is it called mixed peeling?
A) Because it mixes a physical technique (pulsed timedsurgical de-epithelialisation) with a chemical technique (peeling).

Q) Are the results of mixed peeling excellent in all patients?
A) Yes. However, the procedure should not be carried out on patients who habitually expose their skin to the sun, those with dark skin, those who are depressed etc.

Q) Can hyperpigmentation occur?
A) No. Slight hypopigmentation is more likely; this disappears with time and exposure to the sun. The upper lip is always a little patchy and slightly darker than the surrounding skin.

Q) What advantages does timedsurgical mixed peeling have over other techniques?
A) The result is marvellous; wrinkles disappear, the texture of the skin is rejuvenated, the white portion of the lip is shortened and the result is life-long. This pulsed de-epithelialisation procedure is simple and practically risk-free.

Q) Is anti-herpes prevention required?
A) No. Anti-herpes prevention is only carried out in predisposed patients.

Q) Is no medication needed?
A) The patient repeatedly dries the area with a paper tissue. The crust must be thin. When the crust drops off, the patient must not apply creams for 48 hours, in order to allow epidermal keratinisation; subsequently, an emollient cream is applied.

Korpo thanks the open-access Medical Video Journal CRPUB.ORG for the material provided.